Dear Customers, you will receive exactly the same item which you see on the pictures, not similar or other. Please read the description carefully and review the photos. 23 January 393 15 August 423. 15 August 423 (aged 38) Ravenna. Flavius Honorius (9 September 384 15 August 423) was Roman emperor.
He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I. And his first wife Aelia Flaccilla.
Who ruled the eastern half of the empire from 395, when their father died, until his death in 408. In 410, during Honorius's reign over the western Roman Empire. For the first time in almost 800 years. Even by the standards of the rapidly declining Western Empire, Honorius's reign was precarious and chaotic. His early reign was supported by his principal general, Stilicho.
Who was successively Honorius's guardian (during his childhood) and his father-in-law (after the emperor became an adult). Honorius was born to Emperor Theodosius I and Empress Aelia Flaccilla on September 9, 384 in Constantinople.
He was brother to Arcadius and Pulcheria. In 386, his mother died, and in 387, Theodosius married Galla. Who had taken a temporary refuge in Thessaloniki with her family, including her brother Valentinian II.
Away from usurper Magnus Maximus. Theodosius and Galla had two children, Galla Placidia.
And Gratian, making Honorius half-brother to them. Honorius, Arcadius and Galla Placidia were the only children of Theodosius to survive into adulthood.At the age of two in 386, Honorius was declared Augustus. By his father Theodosius I, and thus co-ruler, on 23 January 393 after the death of Valentinian II.
And the usurpation of Eugenius. When Theodosius died, in January 395, Honorius and Arcadius divided the Empire, so that Honorius became Western Roman Emperor at the age of ten. During the early part of his reign Honorius depended on the military leadership of the general Stilicho. Who had been appointed by Theodosius and was of mixed Vandal.
To strengthen his bonds with the young emperor and to make his grandchild an imperial heir, Stilicho married his daughter Maria. Written for the occasion by Stilicho's court poet Claudian. Honorius was also influenced by the Popes. So it was that Pope Innocent I.And Western bishops may have been successful in persuading Honorius to write to his brother, arguing for convening a synod in Thessalonica. At first Honorius based his capital in Milan.
Entered Italy in 401 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna. Which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect Central Italy. From the increasingly regular threat of barbarian incursions.It was significant that the Emperor's residence remained in Ravenna until the overthrow of the last western Roman Emperor in 476. That was probably the reason why Ravenna was chosen not only as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom. In Italy, but also for the seat of the Byzantine exarchs. Stilicho and the defense of Italy. Honorius' reign experienced continued barbarian incursions into Gaul, Italy and Hispania. At the same time, a host of usurpers rose up. Honorius on the consular diptych. The first crisis faced by Honorius was a revolt led by Gildo. And Magister utriusque militiae per Africam , in Northern Africa, which lasted for two years (397398).
It was eventually subdued by Stilicho, under the local command of Mascezel. The very brother of Gildo. The next crisis was the Visigothic invasion of Italy in 402 under the command of their king, Alaric. Stilicho was absent in Raetia. In the latter months of 401, when Alaric, who was also the Eastern Empire's magister militum.
Suddenly marched with a large army through the Julian Alps. Stilicho hurried back to protect Honorius and the legions of Gaul and Britain were summoned to defend Italy. Honorius, at Milan, was besieged by Alaric, who marched into Liguria. Stilicho narrowly defeated Alaric at Pollentia. On the river Tanarus on Easter Day (6 April 402).
Where Stilicho attacked him again yet the battle was not entirely conclusive. The Visigoths were allowed to retreat back to Illyricum.In 405 Stilicho met an invasion of Italy led across the Danube by Radagaisus. They brought devastation to the heart of the Empire, until Stilicho defeated them in 406 and recruited most of them into his forces. Then, in 405/6, a tribal confederation, composed of Suevians. The British provinces were isolated, lacking support from the Empire, and the soldiers supported the revolts of Marcus. Constantine invaded Gaul in 407, occupying Arles.
And while Constantine was in Gaul, his son Constans. By 410, Britain may have been told to look after its own affairs and expect no aid from Rome. Although it has been argued that the order was sent to the people of Bruttium. The western empire was effectively overstretched due to the massive invasion of Alans, Suebi.
And Vandals who, although they had been repulsed from Italy in 406, moved into Gaul on 31 December 406, and arrived in Hispania. In early 408, Stilicho attempted to strengthen his position at court by marrying his second daughter, Thermantia. To Honorius after the death of the Empress Maria in 407 making Honorius the last Western Roman Emperor to have multiple wives during their term in the office.Another invasion by Alaric was prevented in 408 by Stilicho when he forced the Roman Senate to pay 4,000 pounds of gold to persuade the Goths. Honorius, in the meantime, was at Bononia. On his way from Ravenna to Ticinum. When the news reached him of his brother's death in May 408.
He at first was planning to go to Constantinople to help set up the court during the transition from Arcadius. Summoned from Ravenna for advice, Stilicho advised Honorius not to go, and proceeded to go himself.In Stilicho's absence, a minister named Olympius. Gained the confidence of Honorius. He convinced the emperor that his father-in-law was conspiring with the barbarians to overthrow him. On his return to Ravenna, Honorius ordered the arrest and execution of Stilicho.
With Stilicho's fall, Honorius moved against all of his former father-in-law's allies, killing and torturing key individuals and ordering the confiscation of the property of anyone who had borne any office while Stilicho was in command. Daughter of Stilicho, was taken from the imperial throne and given over to her mother; Eucherius, the son of Stilicho, was put to death. The purge also massacred the families of Stilicho's foederati troops. And they defected en masse to Alaric.
Honorius refused to fulfill his former general's promises and Alaric marched on Rome, which bought him off after a short siege with Rome on the verge of famine. A palace revolution in Honorius' court led meanwhile to a change of ministers, and those hostile to the Goths were replaced by officers favorable to Alaric, who began peace negotiations.
While the embassy was absent, a new change occurred at Ravenna, and Honorius disclaimed the peace which was on the verge of being concluded. As emperor, who ratified Alaric's former treaty with Stilicho. In 410, the Eastern Roman Empire. (6,000 men; due to changes in tactics, legions of this period were about 1,000 soldiers, down from the 6,000-soldier legions of the Republic and early Empire periods) from Ravenna to aid Honorius, but Alaric ambushed the legions on the way, and only a handful of them reached Rome. Attalus dispatched an army to conquer Africa and restore the grain supply to Rome.But the governor, Heraclian, who was loyal to Honorius, wiped out this force as soon as it landed on the coast. As Rome was dependent on North African grain for sustenance, the populace was faced with the prospect of famine, and they blamed Attalus for the impending calamity. Growing desperate, Attalus searched for means of pacifying the people, but found himself, in consequence of conciliatory expenditures, incapable of satisfying his debt to Alaric, and thus alienated both Romans and Goths. In turn he came out to be exploited in political terms. Confronted with the increasing unpopularity and truculence of Attalus, Alaric dethroned him in 410 and proposed to renew negotiations with Honorius.
Honorius, overconfident at Attalus' fall and the victory of his general Heraclian over Attalus' African expeditionary force, refused negotiation, and declared Alaric the eternal enemy of the Republic. The infuriated Alaric turned on the defenseless Rome and sacked the city. Constantius and the beginning of erosion of the Western Empire. Christian pendant of Empress Maria. The pendant reads, around a central cross (clockwise): HONORI MARIA.
Latin and Greek characters were intermingled in this one. The letters form a Christogram.
The revolt of Constantine III in the west continued through this period. Constantine III's general in Hispania, rebelled against him, proclaimed Maximus. Emperor, and besieged Constantine at Arles.
Honorius now found himself an able commander, Constantius. Who defeated Maximus and Gerontius, and then Constantine, in 411. Revolted in northern Gaul, with the support of Alans, Burgundians, and the nobility of Gallic descent. Jovinus tried to negotiate with the invading Goths.
(412), but his proclamation of his brother Sebastianus. Made Ataulf seek alliance with Honorius. Honorius had Ataulf defeat and execute Jovinus in 413.At the same time, Heraclianus. Raised the standard of revolt in North Africa, but failed during an invasion of Italy. Defeated, he fled back to Carthage.
In 414, Constantius attacked Ataulf, who proclaimed Priscus Attalus emperor again. Constantius drove Ataulf into Hispania, and Attalus, having again lost Visigoth support, was captured and deposed once again.
In the eleventh consulship of Honorius and the second of Constantius, the Emperor entered Rome in triumph, with Attalus at the wheels of his chariot. Honorius punished Attalus by cutting off his right finger and thumb, inflicting the same fate with which Attalus had threatened Honorius. Northeastern Gaul became subject to even greater Frankish. Influence, while a treaty signed in 418 granted to the Visigoths. Southwestern Gaul, the former Gallia Aquitania.Under the influence of Constantius, Honorius issued the Edict of 418, which was designed to enable the Empire to retain a hold on the lands which were to be surrendered to the Goths. This edict relaxed the administrative bonds that connected all the Seven Provinces. The Maritime Alps, Narbonensis Prima.
It removed the imperial governors and allowed the inhabitants, as a dependent federation, to conduct their own affairs, for which purpose representatives of all the towns were to meet every year in Arles. In 417, Constantius married Honorius's sister, Galla Placidia. In 421, Honorius recognized him as co-emperor Constantius III; however, when the announcement of his elevation was sent to Constantinople, Theodosius refused to recognise him.Constantius, enraged, began preparations for a military conflict with the eastern empire but before he could commence it, he died early in 422. In 420422, another Maximus (or perhaps the same) gained and lost power in Hispania. By the time of Honorius's death in 423, Britain, Spain and Gaul had been ravaged by barbarians. In his final years, Honorius reportedly developed a physical attraction to his half-sister, and in order to escape his unwelcome attentions, Galla Placidia and her children, the future emperor Valentinian III. On 15 August 423, leaving no heir.
In the subsequent interregnum Joannes. The following year, however, the Eastern.
Installed his cousin Valentinian III. Was located on the Vatican Hill. Accessed from the transept of the Old Saint Peter's Basilica.It was first used for Maria. Probably Thermantia and Honorius's sister Galla Placidia, and perhaps other imperial family members, were later buried there.
In the 8th century it was transformed into a church, the Chapel of St Petronilla. Which held the relics of the saint.And was demolished when the New St Peter's. His reign saw the assault and Sack of Rome. On 24 August 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric. The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly Germanic Roman army. Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could in the situation: wait passively for the Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.
Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable. In any case, it was overtaken by events.
Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gauls some eight centuries before. The sack itself was notably mild as sacks go. For example, churches and religious statuary went unharmed. The psychological blow to the contemporary Roman world was considerably more painful.
The shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine. To write his magnum opus. The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British.
Plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions, called the Rescript of Honorius. Honorius lacked any military capability to assist the distant province. According to the sixth century Byzantine. This sentence is located randomly in the middle of a discussion of southern Italy. No further mention of Britain is made, which has led some modern academics to suggest that the rescript does not apply to Britain, but to Bruttium.Inscription honouring Honorius, as florentissimo invictissimoque , the most excellent and invincible, 417418, Forum Romanum. The Favorites of the Emperor Honorius , by John William Waterhouse. In his History of the Wars , Procopius.
Mentions a likely apocryphal story where, on hearing the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favourite chicken. At that time they say that the Emperor Honorius in Ravenna received the message from one of the eunuchs, evidently a keeper of the poultry, that Rome had perished. And he cried out and said,'And yet it has just eaten from my hands! For he had a very large cock, Rome by name; and the eunuch comprehending his words said that it was the city of Rome which had perished at the hands of Alaric, and the emperor with a sigh of relief answered quickly:'But I thought that my fowl Rome had perished. So great, they say, was the folly with which this emperor was possessed.Procopius, The Vandalic War III. While the tale is discounted as false by more recent historians like Edward Gibbon. It is useful in understanding Roman public opinion towards Honorius. Regarding the anecdote, it was recently demonstrated that the bird observations in Procopius work had direct connection with Rome and its prospective rulers. The tale's cock and Rome were not two entities but one, the opportunity of Honorius of being an emperor ruling over the both sides of the empire.
Historian Kovács argued that the fowl and Rome were not two entities but one, the possibility of being a monarch ruling over the Eastern and the Western sides of the empire. Honorius rooster, indeed, symbolized his fathers Theodosius the Great.
Rise to the throne, his rule over both the Eastern and the Western halves of the Roman Empire. Honorius was negatively assessed by some 19th and 20th century historians, including J. Honorius issued a decree during his reign, prohibiting men from wearing trousers in Rome. Games took place during the reign of Honorius, who banned the practice in 399 and again in 404, reportedly due to the martyrdom of a Christian monk named Telemachus.
While he was protesting a gladiator fight. The item "HONORIUS NGC MS ROMAN COINS AV SOLIDUS. Rv Constantinopolis std AD 393-423. A825" is in sale since Friday, August 13, 2021.
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