Imperator Caesar Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus. From February 244 to September 249. In a city situated in modern-day Syria. He went on to become a major figure in the Roman Empire.
In February 244, Philip, who had been. He quickly negotiated peace with the Persian.
During his reign, the city of Rome celebrated its millennium. He also introduced the Actia-Dusaria Festivities in. Writers, Philip had the reputation of being sympathetic to the Christian faith. Probably for this reason, it was even claimed by some that he had converted to Christianity, which would have made him the first Christian emperor. He supposedly tried to celebrate Easter.
But the bishop Saint Babylas. Made him stand with the penitents. Philip and his wife received letters from Origen.Philip was betrayed and killed at the Battle of Verona. In September 249 following a rebellion led by his successor, Gaius Messius Quintus Decius. Portrait head possibly of Empress Otacilia Severa, wife of Emperor Philip the Arab 250-300 CE. Little is known about Philip's early life and political career. He was born in what is today Shahba. About 90 kilometres (56 mi) southeast of Damascus. An Arab district in Aurantis. At the time this was in the Roman province. And it is accepted that Philip was indeed of Arab. He was the son of a local citizen, Julius Marinus. Allegations from later Roman sources Historia Augusta. That Philip had a very humble origin or even that his father was a leader of brigands are not accepted by modern historians.
While the name of Philip's mother is unknown, he did have a brother, Gaius Julius Priscus. And a member of the Praetorian Guard. In 234, Philip married Marcia Otacilia Severa. Daughter of a Roman Governor. They had three children, a son named Marcus Julius Philippus Severus Philippus II., born in 238, a daughter called Julia Severa or Severina who is known from numismatic evidence but is never mentioned by the ancient Roman sources and a son named Quintus Philippus Severus, born in 247. Coin of Marcia Otacilia Severa, wife of Philip. The Greek legend states she received the title of Augusta. Rock-face relief at Naqsh-e Rustam.
(on horseback) with Philip the Arab and Emperor Valerian. Kneeling in surrender to the Persian king. Philip's rise to prominence began through the intervention of his brother Priscus, who was an important official under the emperor Gordian III.
His big break came in 243, during Gordian III's campaign against Shapur I. Of Persia, when the Praetorian prefect.
Gordian III died in February 244 under circumstances that are still debated. While some claim that Philip conspired in his murder, other accounts (including one coming from the Persian point of view) state that Gordian died in battle. Whatever the case, Philip assumed the purple robe following Gordian's death. His rise from so obscure a station to the first dignities of the empire seems to prove that he was a bold and able leader.
But his boldness prompted him to aspire to the throne, and his abilities were employed to supplant, not to serve, his indulgent master. Philip was not willing to repeat the mistakes of previous claimants, and was aware that he had to return to Rome. In order to secure his position with the senate. However, his first priority was to conclude a peace treaty with Shapur I of Persia, and withdraw the army from a potentially disastrous situation. Although Philip was accused of abandoning territory, the actual terms of the peace were not as humiliating as they could have been.
Philip apparently retained Timesitheus reconquest of Osroene. But he had to agree that Armenia. Lay within Persia's sphere of influence. He also had to pay an enormous indemnity to the Persians of 500,000 gold denarii. Philip immediately issued coins proclaiming that he had made peace with the Persians (pax fundata cum Persis).
Leading his army back up the. In honor of Gordian III, but his ashes were sent ahead to.
Where he arranged for Gordian III's deification. He left his brother Priscus as extraordinary ruler of the Eastern provinces, with the title of. Moving westward, he gave his brother-in-law Severianus control of the provinces of. He eventually arrived in Rome in the late summer of 244, where he was confirmed.
Before the end of the year, he nominated his young son. And heir, his wife, Otacilia Severa, was named Augusta, and he also deified his father Marinus, even though the latter had never been emperor.While in Rome, Philip also claimed an official victory over the Persians with the titles of. In an attempt to shore up his regime, Philip put a great deal of effort in maintaining good relations with the Senate, and from the beginning of his reign, he reaffirmed the old Roman virtues and traditions. He quickly ordered an enormous building program in his home town, renaming it Philippopolis, and raising it to civic status, while he populated it with statues of himself and his family. To pay for it, he ruthlessly increased levels of taxation, while at the same time he ceased paying subsidies to the tribes north of the Danube.
That were vital for keeping the peace on the frontiers. Both decisions would have significant impacts upon the empire and his reign. In 245, Philip was forced to leave Rome as the stability established by Timesitheus was undone by a combination of his death, Gordian's defeat in the east and Philip's decision to cease paying the subsidies.He pushed the Carpi across the Danube and chased them back into Dacia, so that by the summer of 246, he claimed victory against them, along with the title "Carpicus Maximus". In the meantime, the Arsacids of Armenia. Refused to acknowledge the authority of the Persian king Shapur I, and war with Persia flared up again by 245. Which coincided with the one thousandth anniversary of the foundation of Rome. So in April 248 AD April 1000 A.
, Philip had the honor of leading the celebrations of the one thousandth birthday of Rome, which according to tradition was founded. On April 21, 753 BC by Romulus. Commemorative coins, such as the one illustrated here, were issued in large numbers and, according to contemporary accounts, the festivities were magnificent and included spectacular games, ludi saeculares.
And theatrical presentations throughout the city. In what had been originally prepared for Gordian III's planned. Were killed along with hundreds of exotic animals including hippos, leopards, lions, giraffes, and one rhinoceros. The events were also celebrated in literature, with several publications, including.
History of a Thousand Years. Specially prepared for the anniversary. At the same time, Philip elevated his son to the rank of co-Augustus. Despite the festive atmosphere, there were continued problems in the provinces. In late 248, the legions of Pannonia.
And Moesia, dissatisfied with the result of the war against the Carpi, rebelled and proclaimed Tiberius Claudius Pacatianus. The confusion that this entailed tempted the Quadi. To cross the frontier and raid Pannonia. At the same time, the Goths. And Thrace across the Danube.
Frontier, and laid siege to Marcianopolis. As the Carpi, encouraged by the Gothic incursions, renewed their assaults in Dacia and Moesia. Meanwhile, in the East, Marcus Jotapianus.Led another uprising in response to the oppressive rule of Priscus. And the excessive taxation of the Eastern provinces. Two other usurpers, Marcus Silbannacus. Are reported to have started rebellions without much success.
Overwhelmed by the number of invasions and usurpers, Philip offered to resign, but the Senate decided to throw its support behind the emperor, with a certain Gaius Messius Quintus Decius. Most vocal of all the senators. Philip was so impressed by his support that he dispatched Decius to the region with a special command encompassing all of the Pannonian and Moesian provinces. This had a dual purpose of both quelling the rebellion of Pacatianus as well as dealing with the barbarian incursions.
Although Decius managed to quell the revolt, discontent in the legions was growing. Decius was proclaimed emperor by the Danubian armies in the spring of 249 and immediately marched on Rome. Yet even before he had left the region, the situation for Philip had turned even more sour. Financial difficulties had forced him to debase the Antoninianus. As rioting began to occur in Egypt, causing disruptions to Rome's wheat supply and further eroding Philip's support in the capital.Although Decius tried to come to terms with Philip, Philip's army met the usurper near modern Verona. Decius easily won the battle. And Philip was killed sometime in September 249, either in the fighting or assassinated by his own soldiers who were eager to please the new ruler.
Philip's eleven-year-old son and heir may have been killed with his father and Priscus disappeared without a trace. The item "NGC MS ROMAN COINS PHILIP I, AD 244-249. A756" is in sale since Thursday, April 22, 2021.
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